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The sleeping catastrophe: HIV/AIDS in Haiti

February 26, 2010

The sleeping catastrophe: HIV/AIDS in Haiti – Part 1

By Matayo Moshi, COHA Research Associate: The re-emergence of HIV/AIDS

Haiti has been a broken country at the best of times. The devastating January 12 earthquake has thrown the drastically poor nation under the world spotlight once again, but for all the wrong reasons. At times, it would seem like the very planet itself was conspiring against this small, humble, Caribbean nation.

Even, on its best of days, Haiti is crippled by endemic poverty, which is further compounded by the inexperience as well as the corrupted nature of its government. With an estimated 230,000 casualties, the social and economic consequences of the earthquake will incontrovertibly reverberate throughout Haitian society for generations.

Moreover, with the nation’s capital, Port-au-Prince, now in ruins and the vestiges of health care infrastructure all but destroyed, little care is available to those who need it most, especially those requiring specialized assistance, this includes the 120,000 Haitian people currently living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.

The global pandemic

Human-Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, was first identified in 1981. Since then, the virus has resulted in the deaths of over 25 million people worldwide, making it the most socio-economically expensive pandemic in human history. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), over 33.5 million people are infected with HIV/AIDS.

The virus does not discriminate. In the United States nearly 1.6 million people live with HIV, with as many as 350,000 with no knowledge of their being infected with the virus. In Washington, D.C. alone, nearly 3 percent of all residents are currently living with, or are affected by HIV.

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has called it a “generalized and severe epidemic,” as the rate of infection in the Washington D.C. area is greater than it is in some West African countries. Upon signing the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Act last year, President Barack Obama said; “We often speak about AIDS as if it’s going on somewhere else, and for good reason […] but often overlooked is the fact that we face a serious HIV/AIDS epidemic of our own — right here in Washington, D.C., and right here in the United States of America.” Clearly, HIV is everyone’s problem.

Globally, HIV/AIDS is a complex and contentious issue. In both the developed and developing worlds, there still persists a widespread stigma, fear, and a sense of shame and denial concerning HIV/AIDS, especially in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

In order to alleviate the consequences of HIV/AIDS, organizations like UNAIDS encourage countries to provide universal access of information and treatment to high-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users, young people, children and orphans.

However, many governments still enforce legislation that hinders efforts at curtailing the global pandemic. In 2007, Thabo Mbeki, former president of South Africa, one of the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS (more than 15 percent are HIV-positive), received widespread criticism among AIDS experts for advocating a position of AIDS denialism during his presidency. Such controversial policies further stigmatize those infected with HIV, reinforcing its role as ‘The Silent Killer’ as a result of people being ashamed to get tested and receive treatment.

Despite labor and cost intensive worldwide research into HIV/AIDS, no vaccine or cure has yet to be discovered. Modern anti-retroviral treatments (ART) have reduced HIV infection from a certain death sentence to a lifelong chronic illness. In developed countries where ART is easily accessible, people living with HIV (PLWHIV) are able to adhere to strict Highly Active Anti-retroviral Treatment (HAART), which can suppress the disease progression of HIV almost indefinitely.

HIV is a pathogenic lentivirus, emanating from the retrovirus family. The virus causes disease progression within the human body by destroying the host’s immune system. The virus targets CD4+ T Lymphocyte cells – the primary defense mechanism of the human immune system. HIV inserts its own genetic code into the host cell’s DNA, forcing the infected cell to produce new HIV upon activation. Lentiviruses are generally slow acting; it can take as little as a few months or up to as many as 20 years for the virus to progress to active disease.

Almost all people infected with HIV eventually develop a condition known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection. It is important to realize that HIV and AIDS are not one and the same; a person who has developed AIDS is infected with HIV, but a person infected with HIV does not necessarily have AIDS.

In most cases, once AIDS is diagnosed, the immune system has been irreparably compromised. AIDS patients typically develop one or more of 26 opportunistic infections that have been identified as AIDS defining illnesses. These range from mild bacterial infections, such as Candidiasis (thrush) to serious cancerous conditions, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma or non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

HIV/AIDS in Haiti

When the HIV/AIDS pandemic first emerged in the 1980’s, Haitians suffered widespread discrimination as the country’s rates of infection skyrocketed. The country’s name became almost synonymous with the virus.

Furthermore, Haiti suffered regional – almost pariah status – isolation when it was alleged that emigrating Haitians had introduced the virus to the United States. At one time, the CDC greatly offended Haiti by listing the country under the 4 H’s moniker – hemophilia, homosexuality, heroin use, and Haitian – to describe the demographic groups most at risk for an HIV/AIDS infection. During the presidency of Jean-Claude Duvalier, in an unfounded attempt to remedy Haiti’s tarnished health performance, it was illegal to mention AIDS – and later HIV – in any form whatsoever.

According to the World Bank, Haiti spends no more that $8 per capita on health care annually and has only 2.5 physicians per every 10,000 people. It is no surprise, then, that HIV/AIDS has been a leading cause of death among Haitians for more than 20 years.

The introduction of effective and free treatment programs provided by organizations such as the Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) has significantly improved lives. However, Haiti’s HIV/AIDS incidence rate is still one of the highest on Earth, with up to 3 percent of all adults, aged 15 – 49, infected with the virus.

Furthermore, unlike its neighbors in the Western Hemisphere, the main highway of transmission in Haiti is unprotected heterosexual intercourse. Despite these troubling statistics, HIV/AIDS infection had been on a steady decline before the earthquake, but many experts now fear that this could change very quickly.

The recent disaster has the potential to damage the treatment and care momentum that Haiti has been building, as the international focus on the island inexorably shifts further toward urgent humanitarian and reconstruction efforts relative to the January 12 earthquake. Among AIDS experts there is real fear being felt that the earthquake will pull resources away from coping with HIV/AIDS.

For over 27 years, GHESKIO has been providing life-saving treatment and therapy to tens of thousands of Haitians living with or affected by HIV/AIDS. This organization provides free HIV voluntary counseling and testing, AIDS care, tuberculosis treatment, reproductive health services, and management of sexually transmitted diseases. GHESKIO is one of many programs worldwide that has received sizable funding from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), an initiative started by the Bush administration to address the global HIV/AIDS pandemic.

PEPFAR’s initial $15 billion five-year plan (2003-2008) provided ART to over 2 million PLWHIV, while at the same time preventing an estimated seven million new HIV infections. A 2009 Stanford study found that PEPFAR had reduced global death rate due to AIDS by some 10 percent in the countries involved, including Haiti.

The success of the five-year plan prompted by the State Department Office of Global AIDS Coordination seeks to renew PEPFAR until 2013 with an extended $48 billion budget.

The sleeping catastrophe: HIV/AIDS in Haiti – Pt. 2

By Matayo Moshi, COHA Research Associate:

The re-emergenceof HIV/AIDS

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